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Keratoconus is a progressive and common eye disorder that affects the cornea. This condition makes the cornea thin and slopes down like a cone-like structure. Due to this, the light rays that enter the eyes cannot focus on a single point and causes blurred vision. It affects both eyes, but one eye can get affected more than the other eye. If neglected, the condition can become worse and can lead to vision impairment.

Signs of Keratoconus

The signs of keratoconus change as the disease progresses. The signs usually begin in the teenage and become worse with age. However, the following are the common signs:

  • Blurred vision
  • Near sightedness
  • Frequent changes in eyesight
  • Sudden clouding of vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • The appearance of glares and halos in bright lights
  • Eye irritation
  • Eye swelling
  • Eye redness

Different Types of Keratoconus

The doctor determines the type of Keratoconus you have based on the shape of the cornea and the location where the cornea has become thin. The following are the different types:

  • Round or nipple cone: It affects only a small portion of the cornea. But the affected area can be very steep. It can lead to noticeable vision deterioration.
  • Oval or sagging cone: This type of keratoconus affects a wide portion of the cornea. Due to this, the internal portion of the cornea may get ruptured and causes scarring. Fitting of contact lenses also becomes difficult with this condition.
  • Forme fruste: It is the common and mildest type of keratoconus. It does not show any signs and it goes away without any treatment.
  • Keratoglobus: It is a rare and unique type of keratoconus and the entire cornea becomes thin and extends forward.

What Causes Keratoconus?

The exact reason for keratoconus is unknown. Doctors believe that it can be due to genetic and environmental factors. However, the following are the risk factors for developing this condition:

  • A family history of keratoconus 
  • If you have poorly fitted contact lenses
  • Chronic rubbing of eyes due to eye irritation
  • Inflammation can break down the tissue of the cornea
  • Teenagers are at higher risk of developing this condition and it progresses until you reach your 30s

However, the following health conditions also have a link with keratoconus:

  • Down syndrome
  • Sleep apnea
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta 
  • Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Leber congenital amaurosis

Diagnosis of Keratoconus

When you visit a doctor for a keratoconus diagnosis, he or she will ask you about the signs, and your medical history. He also examines your eyes and checks your vision. For this, the doctor may give you eye drops to widen or dilate the black area in the pupil. This helps your doctor to view your eye clearly. The doctor may also conduct other eye tests to know the shape of your cornea. The following different tests can be used for keratoconus diagnosis:

  • Eye refraction
  • Slit-lamp examination
  • Keratometry
  • Corneal tomography
  • Corneal topography

How is Keratoconus Treated?

The treatment for keratoconus is based on the severity of your condition and how fast the condition is progressing. The type of keratoconus you have also affects your treatment plan. The treatment for keratoconus focuses on improving vision and reducing the progression of the disease. The treatment begins with using eyeglasses to correct your vision. If eyeglasses do not help, then you can have contact lenses. This can be a long-term solution for people who have mild to moderate keratoconus.

If your condition is progressing, a treatment called cornea collagen cross-linking is performed to slow down the condition from getting worse. The doctor may also insert implants called intacs into your cornea. The use of intacs can flatten the cornea and can improve your vision.

If above treatments do not help or if the signs are severe, then the doctor may suggest a corneal transplant. It is a safe and effective procedure. During this procedure, a portion or the entire cornea is removed and is replaced with a donor cornea.

Have Signs of Keratoconus? Visit Think Eye Hospital Today

Think Eye Hospital is one of the best eye hospitals in Hyderabad. We are dedicated to offering the best and most cost-affordable solutions for our patients. It is our pleasure to provide the best treatment for keratoconus. We are well-equipped with the latest in the technology for early evaluation and for effective keratoconus treatment. If you have any signs of keratoconus, talk to one of our ophthalmologists to prevent the condition from progressing.